Part of Brett Bartholomew’s Conscious Coaching is starting with a little introspection. You can’t lead others until you know who and what you are.
Brett covers many tools available for this: the Cliffton Strengthsfinder test, the Meyers-Briggs type indicator, the Hogan assessments, Insights Discovery and the DiSC assessments profile.
Several of those are a paid service, and rightfully should be as lots of hours went into developing them and turning them into a useful tool. They are likely worth the money to someone truly on the path of self knowledge. Well, call me self-knowledge curious, as I explore some of the free options. I’ve done some of these before, but wanted to collect it all here.
The idea with taking these assessments is not to do one and go “okay that is who I am”. No, it should be used as an opportunity say “okay, this is who I am, how do I improve on this”.
My results will be tracked below.
My personality type is: Debater, ENTP-A. (yeah, anyone who follows me on twitter or facebook is probably not shocked. I like to say you pick your side, I’ll make the argument.)
Quick-witted and audacious, Debaters aren’t afraid to disagree with the status quo. In fact, they’re not afraid to disagree with pretty much anything or anyone. Few things light up people with this personality type more than a bit of verbal sparring – and if the conversation veers into controversial terrain, so much the better.
It would be a mistake, though, to think of Debaters as disagreeable or mean-spirited. Instead, people with this personality type are knowledgeable and curious, with a playful sense of humor, and they can be incredibly entertaining. They simply have an offbeat, contrarian idea of fun – one that involves a healthy dose of spirited debate.
Debaters are the ultimate devil’s advocates, thriving on the process of shredding arguments and beliefs and letting the ribbons drift in the wind for all to see.
Breaking the Rules
Follow the path of the unsafe, independent thinker. Expose your ideas to the dangers of controversy.THOMAS J. WATSON
Debaters are known for their rebellious streak. For this personality type, no belief is too sacred to be questioned, no idea is too fundamental to be scrutinized, and no rule is too important to be broken, or at least thoroughly tested. Sometimes Debaters even rebel against their own beliefs by arguing the opposing viewpoint – just to see how the world looks from the other side.
As Debaters see it, most people are too ready to do as they’re told and blindly conform to social norms, pressures, and standards. Debaters enjoy the mental exercise of questioning the prevailing mode of thought, and they take a certain pleasure in uncovering the value of underdogs and outliers. Their active minds can’t help but rethink the things that everyone else takes for granted and push them in clever new directions.
For many Debaters, one of life’s greatest challenges is to translate their wide-ranging intellectual energy into real-world achievements and contributions.
While Debater personalities love to brainstorm and think big, they tend to avoid getting caught doing the “grunt work” of implementing their ideas. To some extent, this makes sense – Debaters have far too many thoughts and suggestions to keep track of them all, let alone turn them into reality. But unless Debaters develop the willingness to identify and actually follow through on their priorities, they may struggle to harness their full potential.
The Cost of Contrarianism
Debaters’ capacity for debate is legendary, but that doesn’t mean that it’s always helpful. When they openly question their boss in a meeting or pick apart everything their significant other says, Debaters may think that they’re being champions of rationality and logic. But they may also be doing their chances of success and happiness more harm than good.
Not every occasion calls for this personality type’s default contrarianism, and most people can only stand to have their beliefs questioned and their feelings brushed aside for so long. As a result, Debaters may find that their quarrelsome fun burns many bridges, often inadvertently. Debaters are respected for their vision, confidence, knowledge, and keen sense of humor – but unless they cultivate a bit of sensitivity, they may struggle to maintain deeper relationships or even to achieve their professional goals.
Many Debaters find that a more compassionate approach is worth exploring as they strive to build solid relationships.
With time, many Debaters realize that their ideal life involves other people and that spending too much energy on “winning” arguments ultimately means robbing themselves of the support that they need to get where they want to be in life. The good news is that people with this personality type will never lose their sharply nonconformist edge. They can simply use their cognitive flexibility to understand and explore other people’s perspectives, recognizing the value of consideration and compromise alongside logic and progress.
- Knowledgeable – Debaters rarely pass up a good opportunity to learn something new, especially abstract concepts. This information isn’t usually absorbed for any planned purpose as with dedicated studying, people with the Debater personality type just find it fascinating.
- Quick Thinkers – Debaters have tremendously flexible minds, and are able to shift from idea to idea without effort, drawing on their accumulated knowledge to prove their points, or their opponents’, as they see fit.
- Original – Having little attachment to tradition, Debater personalities are able to discard existing systems and methods and pull together disparate ideas from their extensive knowledge base, with a little raw creativity to hold them together, to formulate bold new ideas. If presented with chronic, systemic problems and given rein to solve them, Debaters respond with unabashed glee.
- Excellent Brainstormers – Nothing is quite as enjoyable to Debaters as analyzing problems from every angle to find the best solutions. Combining their knowledge and originality to splay out every aspect of the subject at hand, rejecting without remorse options that don’t work and presenting ever more possibilities, Debaters are irreplaceable in brainstorming sessions.
- Charismatic – People with the Debater personality type have a way with words and wit that others find intriguing. Their confidence, quick thought and ability to connect disparate ideas in novel ways create a style of communication that is charming, even entertaining, and informative at the same time.
- Energetic – When given a chance to combine these traits to examine an interesting problem, Debaters can be truly impressive in their enthusiasm and energy, having no qualms with putting in long days and nights to find a solution.
- Very Argumentative – If there’s anything Debaters enjoy, it’s the mental exercise of debating an idea, and nothing is sacred. More consensus-oriented personality types rarely appreciate the vigor with which Debater personalities tear down their beliefs and methods, leading to a great deal of tension.
- Insensitive – Being so rational, Debaters often misjudge others feelings and push their debates well past others’ tolerance levels. People with this personality type don’t really consider emotional points to be valid in such debates either, which magnifies the issue tremendously.
- Intolerant – Unless people are able to back up their ideas in a round of mental sparring, Debaters are likely to dismiss not just the ideas but the people themselves. Either a suggestion can stand up to rational scrutiny or it’s not worth bothering with.
- Can Find It Difficult to Focus – The same flexibility that allows Debaters to come up with such original plans and ideas makes them readapt perfectly good ones far too often, or to even drop them entirely as the initial excitement wanes and newer thoughts come along. Boredom comes too easily for Debaters, and fresh thoughts are the solution, though not always a helpful one.
- Dislike Practical Matters – Debaters are interested in what could be – malleable concepts like ideas and plans that can be adapted and debated. When it comes to hard details and day-to-day execution where creative flair isn’t just unnecessary but actually counter-productive, Debater personalities lose interest, often with the consequence of their plans never seeing the light of day.
If there’s one thing Debaters are good at, it’s coming up with a never-ending stream of innovations and ideas to keep things moving forward, and this is evident in their romantic relationships as well. For people with the Debater personality type growth is key, and even before they’ve found a dating partner, they imagine all the ways that they can experience new things together, to grow in tandem. This can be an overwhelming process if their partner doesn’t match up, but when Debaters find someone who shares their love of intellectual exploration, watch out.
Sparks May Fly
From the earliest dates, Debaters test their partners’ limits for this kind of potential, pushing boundaries and traditions, looking for open-mindedness and spontaneity. Dating Debater personalities is hardly a boring experience, and they make use of their enthusiasm and creativity by delighting and surprising their partners with new ideas and experiences.
Debaters’ idea of fun is often rooted in self-improvement, and people with this personality type bring their partners along the way, as much in a spirit of sharing as in a spirit of expectation. Debaters see either growth or stagnation and don’t buy into the idea of a happy status quo, making them demanding as much as they are exciting.
Some may tire in the face of this constant improvement – while Debaters’ vigor can be attractive, it can also wear down even the most patient partners. A little time to breathe and a chance to rest on one’s laurels for a moment is necessary for many people, but not something Debaters are likely to appreciate. However, if their unwavering enthusiasm is met in kind, it can lead to a magnificent relationship characterized by its strength, depth, and spark.
Opportunities for Growth
This is perhaps most evident as Debaters’ relationships progress into more intimate situations. All that exploratory curiosity and enthusiasm has a chance to be expressed in new ways when Debaters and their partners come together, and they readily encourage their partners to try new things, to enjoy their intimacy without preconceived limitations.
For people with the Debater personality type, this phase of their relationships is a chance to improve and develop in areas that are outside the realm of academia, though they approach it in much the same way – as a physical and intellectual process of striving towards excellence, rather than a spiritual or emotional expression of affection.
Debaters’ desire to improve in this department makes them fantastic partners when the relationship reaches that point, but their attitude towards this process is also evidence of their most glaring shortcoming – their emotional obliviousness. While Debaters are more open-minded than other Analyst personality types about others’ perspectives, they are also more likely to express their disdain for such things as emotional sensitivity in cuttingly well-phrased and clear terms, easily hurting their partners’ feelings without realizing it. Debater personalities may even ignore their partners’ feelings altogether, instead immersing themselves entirely in some distant idea or opportunity, inaccessible.
Where Debaters’ unwavering desire for self-improvement comes in most handy is in their emotional development, as they may actually be willing to work on areas such as sensitivity and emotional communication with their partners.
Debaters’ best compatibility rests with other Intuitive (N) types, with one or two opposing traits which help to create both balance and opportunities for growth. If they are with a more sensitive partner, this can be an excellent way for them to find another quality that they can work on together, making this weakness yet another opportunity to be creative, challenge themselves, and to deepen the attractiveness that this sense of progression brings to their relationships.
Loyalty, support, emotional feedback – these are not what Debaters look for in their friendships. The last thing people with the Debater personality type want to hear is “you’re right”, not unless they have absolutely earned the distinction in a heated round of intellectual debate. If they’re wrong, Debaters want to be told so, and they want every detail of the faults in their logic to be laid bare, partly in their quest for oftentimes arbitrary truth, and partly just so they have to work to defend that logic with counterpoint and parry.
It’s often easy for Debaters to test compatibility with a potential friend – they just need to test combatability. Debater personalities are quick-witted, and their primary means of expressing this is in the form of arguments and discussions, where they will easily spend an entire evening debating an idea they may not even believe in.
The epitome of Debaters’ friendships is when someone can hold their ground in these arbitrary debates with valid, rational arguments.
These debates are never taken personally, no matter how heated they become or how striking the disagreement. Much as an athlete competes for the physical exertion and the spirit of competition itself, Debaters debate for the sake intellectual stimulation and for the debate itself, and even in overwhelming victory or crushing defeat, it’s never about dominance, only inspiration to try harder next time.
Never a Dull Moment
They know how to relax and have fun too, it’s just that “fun” to Debaters – a bottle of wine and a discussion about the causes of and solutions to the European migrant crisis – could be described as “an evening from hell” by many other personalities. But Debaters are a genial and enthusiastic personality type for the most part, and pretty much any situation that allows for conversation and a little wordplay is an enjoyable outing.
Debaters are actually remarkably good at communicating with friends and acquaintances of other personality types. Their natural tendency to argue as effectively as possible means that Debaters are accustomed to communicating in other people’s language and frame of reference, and this translates well into normal conversation. Where people with the Debater personality type do have difficulty relating to others is in emotional expression, the Achilles’ heel of all Analyst types.
Being inclined to suppress their emotions and feelings, when Debaters are faced with a friend who, figuratively or literally, needs a shoulder to cry on, they have no clue how to handle the situation. They are perfectly willing and happy to offer a series of rational, reasonable solutions to the problem at hand, as Debaters do for any situation where a problem needs to be fixed, but they are certainly not known for their sensitivity or outward affection, no matter how intuitively they may understand another’s position.
Worse is when Debater personalities try to turn these emotional situations into something they find more comfortable: a debate. Given how remarkably good Debaters are at arguing both sides of a point, they are remarkably bad at putting themselves in someone else’s shoes from an emotional standpoint. Debaters should avoid at all costs the temptation to turn a discussion about the causes of a friend’s recent breakup into competitive intellectual fodder.
So long as everyone understands not to take their words too personally, anyone who isn’t afraid to discuss new ideas – and have them converted into so much confetti – is likely to find stimulating and thought-provoking friends in Debaters. It’s not a compatibility that clicks with everyone, but Debaters don’t really care about being liked by everyone anyways. As long as they get to alternate between being the sounding board and the megaphone, Debaters and their friends are bound to enjoy each other’s company for a long, long time.
One might think that the blustery and flighty nature of Debaters would make parenting a particular challenge for them, and in many ways, they’d be right. However, one thing people with the Debater personality type love more than just about anything is a good challenge, a problem to fix, even if it comes to addressing their own weaknesses. Debaters take their roles as parents seriously, and they are bound to be affected profoundly by this development in their lives – if anyone is able to take an outside influence, like their children, and use that influence to address their own faults, it is Debaters.
Raising Free Thinkers
From the beginning Debaters’ distaste for rules and regulations is evident, and they are likely to give their young children the freedom necessary to explore on their own. Independence is one of Debaters’ greatest needs, and they feel that no person is complete without an independent mind.
Debater personalities create relaxed, unorthodox environments for their children, founded on enthusiasm and the joy of discovery through the development of reason, not heavily structured settings designed merely to be safe.
As their children grow and develop, Debaters encourage them to think independently and voice objections, opinions and alternatives. But unlike Diplomat parents, who encourage their children to express their thoughts in terms of feelings and needs, Debaters teach their children to approach these options from a position of impartiality and logic, to state what is more effective rather than what would make them feel good. As in other relationships, this quality of emotional inaccessibility is where Debaters struggle.
As their children grow into adolescence and learn to find a balance in healthy emotional expression, people with the Debater personality type may find themselves exasperated. While always up for a good debate on just about any subject, Debaters often need their partners’ help in managing more emotional outbursts and arguments. Debaters are more able than most, but even they have their limits and rules when it comes to vocal conflict.
Finding a Better Way
Luckily, Debater personalities recognize what’s at stake: they want their children to grow into smart, independent, honest adults. To convey those values, Debaters know that they need, like with any other debate, to communicate in terms that are accessible to all sides. If that means learning how to use the tools of emotional expression and appeals, and in so doing becoming more emotionally expressive in real, personal terms as well, so be it.
In the world of careers, Debaters have the benefit of being naturally engaged and interested in being productive and helpful. But rather than the sort of people-oriented helpfulness that Diplomat personality types bring to the table, Debater personalities are focused on developing solutions to interesting and diverse technical and intellectual problems. Debaters are a versatile personality type, and while it may take time for them to get to a point where they can fully utilize their skillset and qualities, they are likely to find that those qualities translate well into pretty much any career that so much as piques their interest.
If there’s anything Debaters love, it’s flexing their mental muscles, and any environment that lets them devise new approaches, new ideas and new projects, that allows them to push the limits of their creativity, will benefit strongly from what Debaters bring to the table.
Not every career allows this level of unbridled brainpower, but there are those that demand nothing but: entrepreneurship, engineering, even acting and photography. So long as Debaters are honest with themselves about their strengths and weaknesses, they can thrive in most any career that is in need of a new line of thinking.
The Gift of Curiosity
All this intellectual power can be intimidating, but unlike their Introverted (I) cousins, people with the Debater personality type have the added benefit of being excellent communicators, in the written word but especially in face-to-face conversation. Though they dislike the constraints of managing others (and of being managed), this social adaptability allows Debaters to be natural leaders, showing the way forward and inspiring others with sound logic and intellectual prowess. While others may object to these plans with emotional considerations or general resistance to change, things Debaters place little value in, these competing comments are usually outmaneuvered by Debater personalities’ deft arguments and subtly shifting goals.
The best careers reward intellectual competency and curiosity, allowing Debaters to utilize their never-ending flow of ideas productively by affording a degree of spontaneity in how they engage their intellectual pursuits. People with the Debater personality type value knowledge, rational thought and insight very highly, and they make brilliant lawyers, psychologists, systems analysts and scientists. It’s even possible for Debaters to thrive as sales representatives, as they rationalize purchase decisions that may otherwise seem discretionary – so long as their managers know to give them the space they need to work their magic.
An Independent Spirit
Really it all comes down to a sense of personal freedom, for Debaters to know that they are allowed to apply themselves fully to understanding and solving the problems that interest them, without getting bogged down by social politics and trying to figure out what makes other people “tick”. Routine, structure and formal rules all feel like unnecessary hindrances to Debaters, and they may find that their best careers yet allow them to engage their intellectual pursuits on their own terms, as freelance consultants or software engineers.
The key for Debaters is to have the patience to get to a position that allows for these freedoms, to be in an environment long enough that not just their colleagues, but their managers and, in time, their subordinates, recognize what it is that they bring to the table. Debaters have exceptional qualities – it’s quantifying their achievements and skills that presents the biggest challenge. But once they’ve got their foot in the door, once they’ve got a willing ear higher in the hierarchy, the sky’s the limit.
Debaters have straightforward expectations in the workplace, but ones that aren’t always easy to meet. Strong believers in meritocracy, people with the Debater personality type expect their ideas to be heard by those above them, expect robust debate among their peers, and demand that those they manage offer up new solutions and ideas regardless of their positions. While this isn’t always how things play out in reality, Debaters know what to look for, and can avoid those strictly hierarchical institutions that they would otherwise struggle with.
This dynamic is clearest with Debater subordinates, as they are comfortable challenging their managers’ ideas and have a strong (and well-expressed) dislike for restrictive rules and guidelines. Debaters back this unorthodox behavior with their keen minds and curiosity, and are as capable of adopting new methods as they are of suggesting others do so. If something can be done better, it’s as simple as that, and Debater personalities gladly take criticism, so long as it’s logical and performance-oriented.
The biggest challenge for Debater subordinates is that it is often the fate of the “lower” positions to implement the details, do the dirty work and follow through on plans set out by their managers. This couldn’t be further from what Debaters prefer to spend their time on – they can’t stand simple, routine work, and monotonous tasks are the stuff of nightmares. Things go over much better if managers are able to properly utilize Debaters’ preference for tackling complex challenges and diverse projects.
It is as colleagues that Debaters prove most polarizing, as their passions for brainstorming, debate and over-analysis drive more practical, task-oriented colleagues crazy, but serve as stimulating inspiration for those who appreciate the innovation Debaters bring. Nothing bothers people with the Debater personality type more than getting out of a meeting where everyone agreed with the first plan presented, only to hear everyone complain about how stupid the plan was ten minutes later – but they “didn’t want to make waves”. Debaters strive for honest, direct and objective assessments of these ideas, so much so that they often earn reputations for their insensitivity and condescension.
Luckily Debaters know how to relax too, and their witty wordplay, healthy sense of humor and outgoing nature win new friends quickly and easily. Always willing to draw on their repository of knowledge, conversations with Debater personalities are informative and entertaining, which makes it easy for them to be the go-to person for tough problems that stump more rote approaches. Peer-to-peer relationships with Debaters aren’t always easy, but it’s tough to argue that they don’t work.
While not always their goal, management is often where Debaters are most at home, allowing them the freedom to fiddle with different approaches and come up with innovative ways to tackle new challenges without having to handle the tedious step-by-step implementation of these plans. Debaters are open-minded and flexible managers, not just granting but also expecting the same freedom of thought that they themselves enjoy. This can lead to disorder, conflicting ideas and approaches being put forward, but Debaters are also great at accurately and objectively assessing which plan is likely to be most effective.
This doesn’t always make friends, but being liked is less Debaters’ goal than being respected and seen as intelligent and capable. And liked or no, people with this personality type hold firm ground in rational debates, making them fearsome advocates for their teams. The challenge for Debaters is focus, as they may find themselves jumping from project to project in a quest for challenge and excitement before their teams are able to wrap up the details of their existing goals and obligations.
Armed with a powerful intellect and vivid imagination, Debaters can overcome or outmaneuver obstacles that seem unbeatable to most. At the same time, their many quirks, such as often unconstrained rationalism, lead to many misunderstandings. Those misunderstandings end here. What you have read so far is just an introduction – we have a great deal more to tell you about the Debater personality type.
At some point in reading through your results, you probably hit a tipping point. You went from trademark Debater skepticism to “huh…” to “wait, what?” You may even be a little uncomfortable because you are really not used to being understood, even by the people you’re closest to.
Chances are, you’ve accepted that as part of who you are, and maybe even grown proud of it. But embracing that disconnection isn’t a requirement for Debaters. It’s a misused defense mechanism, leading you down a lonely, inefficient path – gaining insight into yourself and others is so much more rewarding.
This is no date-of-birth gimmick, and no, we did not spy on you – rather, we’ve spent years studying Debaters’ life stories, experiences, and patterns in hundreds of our surveys. Step by step, insight by insight, we discovered how those who share your qualities and outlook have overcome the challenges they’ve faced. You are a unique individual, but you are not alone in this. It’s wise to learn from others’ experiences – and we’d really like to share those insights with you.
As you move forward into the e-books and interactive courses we offer, we go much deeper into the Debater mind. We answer not just “what”, but “why?”, “how?” and “what if?” Why do you act the way you do? How do you find motivation and inspiration? What if you moved beyond fear to pursue what you secretly want to achieve in life?
We can show you how to use your strengths to unlock your exceptional potential and avoid common pitfalls, while also staying true to who you are – after all, that’s the point. To see how you can grow to be the person you know you’re capable of being, in ways that finally feel right – read on, Debater.
Art of Coaching: What Drives You?
My Primary Drive Is: Achievement
Inertia is your enemy; growth is your energy source. Even the notion of not improving in any way personally or professionally compels you to seek out even the smallest moments throughout the day/night, where you find a way to occupy your otherwise racing and curious mind productively.
You enjoy learning new skills, as well as relentlessly sharpening the skills you already possess.
While you realize true mastery may be unattainable, you view physical, emotional, and intellectual growth to be cornerstones in the process. Professionally, you are OK with being led by others, but value autonomy.
The phrase “leaders are lifelong learners” resonates with you strongly and few of the “small” details which others may often miss in their work or daily interactions rarely escape your attention.
Even when you acknowledge you deserve a day of rest, you will feel dissatisfied if something small doesn’t get checked off your list.
- Action-Oriented: For you, each day starts at zero, and you approach it as if there’s no time to waste. You possess tremendous stamina and a sense of urgency that compels you to contribute at an uncommon level and provides you with the advantage needed to become a leader in your field.
- Accountable: Being someone who values growth in general, you don’t wait to be told what to do, and you don’t need to be reminded that the quality of work you perform is of paramount importance. You are your own harshest critic, which could be harmful if not appropriately managed, but for you, it allows you to see your work with a sense of clear(er) focus.
- Humble: As someone who consistently strives to do their best and push their limits, you likely have gone through phases of humility. While there may have been points in your life where pride got the best of you, you’ve eventually learned the cliche, “the more you know, the more you realize what you don’t know” is exceedingly accurate.
- Obsession: Achievers vary in their desire to compete with others vs. competing with themselves. Still, they share common ground in that eventually they will have to learn to live with some level of discontent given their predisposition for perfectionism. Achievers benefit from understanding that not everything can be accomplished or needs to be accomplished. You will ultimately transcend personally and professionally by learning how to pick your battles better and let some of your ideas go.
- Disconnected: Given your relentless desire to accomplish and your ability to focus intensely, you may be perceived as “detached” or even accused as someone unwilling to share what you know with others. No matter how great your desire to grow professionally, you need to take great care to ensure you don’t begin to undervalue small moments or neglect nurturing your relationships. Yes, acquiring new skills and knowledge can enhance your ability to give back to others, but for that to happen at the highest level, there must be a balance of warmth and competence.
Big Five Personality Report
The Big Five Personality Test offers a concise measure of the five major factors of personality, as well as the six facets that define each factor. Factor scores give a broad global description of an individual. Facet scores describe, in more detail, the specific traits of personality that make up the broad global description.
Textual summary of your report
|The Big Five Factors||Describing a low range scoring person…||Percentile||Range||Describing a high range scoring person…|
|Openness to experience||Traditionalist • down-to-earth • practical • conservative • prefers traditional outlooks and technical problem-solving||46||Middle||Imaginative • open-minded • experimental • prefers creative conceptual problem-solving|
|Conscientiousness (Work Ethic)||Spontaneous • disorganised • prefers flexible plans • dislikes precise details||10||Low||Conscientious • disciplined • efficient • well organised • likes precise detail • strong sense of duty • (Very High scorers could be described as workaholics)|
|Extraversion||Reserved • formal • serious • quiet • prefers working alone • avoids direct leadership roles||67||Middle||Outgoing • friendly • assertive • likes working with others • enjoys direct leadership roles|
|Agreeableness||Hard-headed • sceptical • competitive • proud • prefers competition over co-operation||2||Very low||Compassionate • eager to please • good natured • prefers co-operation over competition and conflict|
|Natural reactions||Not easily upset in stressful situations • relaxed • resilient • calm||15||Low||Experiences negative emotional reactions and feelings of anxiety • prone to worry • easily upset|
The Strongest Personality Factor
The Factor test score furthest away from 50 – above or below – indicates the person’s strongest personality trait. This personality trait is likely to have the greatest influence on your overall behaviour, motivation, values and reactions to life and work situations. The next furthest away from 50 – above or below – is likely to have the next greatest influence and so on.